The archipelago has a variety of habitats – sandy beaches, dunes and coastal grasses, steep cliffs used by marine birds as breeding grounds, sphagnum peatlands with ponds and marshes, and bare summits dominated by heath plants (Ericaceae). Deep valleys carved out by water erosion are covered by a natural boreal forest consisting of conifers and other dwarf or creeping plant species, depending on their exposure to the wind. The flora consists of about 520 species of vascular plants; at least 50% of them are aquatic and 27% have been introduced.

Marine nesting birds found on Saint Pierre and Miquelon include more than 130,000 couples of Leach’s Storm Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), 10,000 couples of Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica), the Common Guillemot or Mure (Uria aalge), the Razorbill (Alca torda), the Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle), the Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), as well as the Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus), a nearly threatened species in North America.

Indigenous mammals include the Meadow Vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus), the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) and three species of bats. The territorial waters are home to many of the same species found throughout the North Atlantic – Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), White-beaked Dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), Harbour Seals (Phoca vitulina), Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus), and others. Read more