Located in South-Eastern Europe, Serbia covers an area of 88,407 km2 with moderate continental climate. Serbia is a country of rich ecosystem and species diversity – covering only 1,9% of the whole European territory it is home to 39% of European vascular flora, 51% of European fish fauna, 40% of European reptile and amphibian fauna, 74% of European bird fauna, 67% European mammal fauna. The diversity of ecosystems in Serbia is primarily evident in the diversity and specific character of its vegetation.
Two national Red Books were published so far:
- The Red Book of flora of Serbia in 1999, that lists extinct and critically endangered plant species and contains 171 plant taxon that represents approximately 5% of Serbian flora;
- The Red Book of daily butterflies of Serbia in 2003, analyzing 57 species that represent 34% of Serbian butterflies.
462 natural areas in Serbia are protected, out of which 5 are national parks, 16 landscape of exceptional features, 67 nature reserves, 16 nature parks, 316 natural monuments and 42 areas of cultural and historical importance. The total protected area is 5.91% of the Serbian territory (522,120 ha). The spatial plan of the Republic of Serbia states that the total protected area should be increased to 10% by 2015 and to 12% by 2021.
There are 5 IUCN Members in Serbia: Ecolibri Bionet: Center for Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Development, Green Network of Vojvodina, Institute for Nature Conservation of Serbia, Institute for Nature Conservation of Vojvodina Province and Ministry of Natural Resources, Mining and Spatial Planning. IUCN Programme Office for South-Eastern Europe is located in Belgrade, Serbia, generously hosted by the Institute for Nature Conservation of Serbia since its opening in 2004.