One in six (16.5%) Mediterranean mammals included in this Red List report are threatened with extinction at the regional scale, with a further 8% assessed as Near Threatened. Out of the 49 threatened species, 20 are unique to the region and occur nowhere else in the world. One mammal species, the Sardinian Pika (Prolagus sardus), has become globally extinct since 1500 A.D. and a further seven species, including the Lion Panthera leo and Tiger Panthera tigris have been extirpated from the Mediterranean region.
Overall, more than one-quarter (27%) of Mediterranean mammals have declining populations, 31% are stable, and for 40%, the population trend is unknown. Only 3% of these species populations are increasing, often due to conservation action, according to the study.