European Red List of lycopods and ferns
In recent years, awareness has risen surrounding the crucial role of plants in providing ecosystem services and on their decline – they are one of the essential foundations of healthy ecosystems that we depend on. However, significant gaps in knowledge still remain. In this context, the European Red List of lycopods and ferns provides the first ever comprehensive assessment of the extinction risk of all native lycopod and fern species to Europe. With 194 species assessed, this assessment highlights that 19.9% of lycopod and fern species are threatened with extinction in Europe. This is mainly due to urban and infrastructure development, human intrusions and disturbance, pollution, and water use and management.